Explain that the next step will focus on inequality based on race or ethnicity. 

In societies where a dominant ethnic group holds most power and privilege, racial inequality is often known as ‘racism’. Racism can be carried out by individuals or organisations (for example ‘institutional racism’ can occur within large organisations, as was concluded by the Macpherson Enquiry in relation to the Metropolitan police’s investigation of the Stephen Lawrence murder) and may be obvious and carried out on purpose, or it may be unintended or unconscious.

It can be defined as prejudice plus power plus a set of ideas about certain groups of people being superior to, or better than, others. An example of this could be the situation in South Africa during the time of apartheid. Some of the ideas behind such beliefs have been around for many hundreds of years.

The next task looks at the reasons why these beliefs may have come about and demonstrates why unequal power relationships exist by connecting global sequences of events to one another.


Cut out the ‘Why? Why? Why?’ cards from the worksheet.

Ask pupils, working in pairs or individually, to put them in order so that each card answers the question ‘Why?’ of the preceding card. 

Then hold a class discussion on what might be surprising and what further questions might arise. Make clear that the reasons for events are complex – these cards explore just one strand of potential causes and are based on theories rather than absolute evidence.

You could write letters on the back of the cards which spell out words when they are placed in the correct order.